A few interesting questions cropped up during the last make-up lectures
1. What is the difference between tahun-tahun and bertahun-tahun?
year after year [frequency] and for years [duration]
Tahun-tahun pesta akhir tahun ada di Pulau Sentosa
Year after year the countdown party is at Sentosa.
Bertahun-tahun pelajar itu tidak lulus ujian memandu
For years that student failed the driving test.
2. What is the different between adik-adik and adik-beradik?
younger siblings and siblings
Adik-adik mereka sudah tidur pada malam itu.
Their younger siblings had slept on that night.
Adik-beradik mereka sudah tidur pada malam itu.
Their siblings had slept on that night.
3. Is it hari esok or esok?
Esok is sufficient as tomorrow although hari esok elaborates the next day as an exiciting if not important period.
Dia tidak ada kerja esok.
Dia akan pergi ke Paris pada hari esok.
In spoken hari is often dropped because of informal interaction and conserving energy theory.
4. Then, why Dia tidur semalam needs no pada hari in both spoken and written?
pada hari is omitted from Dia tidur [*pada hari] semalam for 2 reasons:
1. semalam is part of ‘hari’ not a full ‘hari’ yet.
2. Saya/Mimi (tidak) tidur semalam is complete as we sleep through the night. Many activities occur in the day hence doing sthg pada hari esok is to stipulate an event of the day.
Dia tidur semalam vs. Dia pergi ke sekolah pada hari ini.
5. Can we replace dapat with ada in the example found in e-Learning, Bapa dapat tiga ekor ikan Gurami?
There is a difference
Bapa dapat tiga ekor ikan Gurami may be that father got three fishes from fishing.
Bapa ada tiga ekor ikan Gurami may read father has three fishes as pet.
dapat = got/obtain ada = have/has
“No two words/things/persons are interchangeable, even if they may replace each other hence we double/reduplicate/clone/imitate” JW Sew
“Life is a series of rooms” House M.D.