Tolak Ke Pagi Esok: Push to tomorrow/next morning

I heard a mail pushed in last night after 1215am and quickly put my iPhone below my bed. [wise or i shall be sleepless due to the volume]

[Now that i am energized] Here are the interesting questions came in early morning (yesterday) fit for public consumption beyond my learning cohort.

Hi Cikgu, I was goin through the lecture notes and I realised there are some parts that I do not really understand.

1) if “INDAH” and “CANTIK” both mean beautiful, then what is the difference between the two words? how do we know when to use which word?

Indah for inanimate and abstract things, cantik for animate things, exception applies

2) if “LAMA” and “TUA” both means old, then what is the difference between the two words and how do we know when to use which word? 

Lama old for the length of time hence things whereas tua old for age hence living things that age

3) for lecture 7, slide 7, for the first sentence, can i add “pergi” to the sentence so that it is now : Mereka PERGI ke pasar pada hari ahad.? 

Yes, pergi was left out to generate the routine effect…with pergi it reads like a one-off event 

4) lect 7, slide 9, 2nd sentence, can i say: “Aminah tidur dari pagi HINGGA petang” instead of “Aminah tifur dari pagi KE petang”? 

Yes I wanted to highlight the conjunction ke is good in the phrase as well 

5) can “BERSAMA” and “DENGAN” be used interchangably? what’s the difference between these two words? 

Yes only to a certain extent because the lecture on dengan shows there are few types of dengan (x dengan Y, X using (dengan) Y [stick], X by means of Y [dengan 1 million dollars])

Bersama can only cover the first dengan 

6) what’s the difference between “BAGI” and “UNTUK” if both means for and how do i know when to use which word? 

Bagi in standard grammar follows a noun whereas untuk can include a verb see examples in the lecture. There is little difference in oral Malay [as both provide the same meaning as a conjunction for something else].

7) lect 7, for the “SUPAYA” slide, 1st sentence, can i add “AKAN” to the sentence so that it becomes: “Saya belajar SUPAYA saya akan pandai”? does adding “AKAN” change the meaning of the sentence?

Yes akan does not cover the causal effect of supaya [so that]. Akan provides a future which is a relational progression [i.e. will]

8) what’s the difference between “SEBAB” and “KERANA” if both means beacuse and how do i noe when to use which word? 

Interchangeable but sebab can be fronted to become sebab itu [that’s why] 

9) what’s the difference between “KHABAR” and “BERITA” if both means news and how do i know when to use which word?

Khabar is interpersonal hence used to greet berita is referential; both have different meanings in different context

Saya ada berita baik [I have good news] vs. Khabarnya dia sudah mati [Rumours has it that he or she is dead]

10) what’s the difference between “PULA” and “JUGA” if both means also and how do i know when to use which word?

Pula is to contrast two things (a conflict of two different information) whereas juga is also ( a continuation of a cluster of information) 

11)what’s the difference between “WANG” and “DUIK” if both means money and how do i know when to use which word?

Wang and duit refer to money but duit refers to petty cash, not wang, in that sense duit is subsumable under wang

We also call pocket money as duit saku  

12) what’s the difference between “DEWAN” and “PANGGUNG” and how do i know when to use which word?

Dewan is a hall with a neutral sense Panggung is a hall for performance including screening, ritualistic events, artistic activities;

so Panggung Raffles is near City Hall, Dewan Raffles is at NUS

13) what’s the difference between “TIBA” and “SAMPAI” if both means arrive  and how do i know when to use which word?

Both refer to arrive, tiba is end of arriving [arrival], sampai is [the process till the end of arriving], we shall look at tiba in the second final lecture

Terima kasih

Cikgu […I am so excited,…I think I like it…] based on a popular tune in the 80s

P.S. There is an extra ‘scary’ story in the comment of the previous entry…

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