1. For the words agak, tentang, lebih kurang and kira-kira, they meant “about” right? So they can be used interchangeably? If not can you give me some examples on how they can be used.
Yes for lebih kurang and kira-kira, with a value:
Saya tidur lebih kurang/kira-kira pada pukul 11 malam.
Agak has a quality focus: Kopi ini agak manis.
Tentang is about something in a direct manner:
Mereka baca tentang Diana Spencer.
The problem is that they all become about in English.
2. Berlepas and meninggalkan have the same meaning and can be used interchangeably? [2 learners asked this question]
Meninggalkan has a broader scope referring to leaving in all methods, whereas berlepas has a narrow scope of leaving via airplane with a destination in mind. Hence meninggalkan may either be leaving by foot, land, air or sea and berlepas is departure from the airport.
Mereka berlepas ke Hawaii pada hari ini (leaving by plane with Hawaii as a destination in mind)
Mereka meninggalkan Singapura untuk ke Hawaii (leave Singapura for Hawaii, could be via sea)
3. Terpandai has the same meaning as paling pandai?
Ans. Yes. Einstein orang terpandai/paling pandai dalam pelajaran Fiziks.
4. What is the difference between telah and sudah?
Dia telah/sudah tahu alamat saya. No difference here
Dia telah makan durian [He had eaten durian]
Dia sudah makan durian [He has eaten durian]
5. I am still quite unsure of what is meant by transitive and intransitive after going through the lectures.
Mereka mencuci baju di sungai (transitive sentence: object is baju (shirt).
Mereka bercakap/tidur di tepi jalan (intransitive sentence: no object).
Di tepi jalan is a location not object and it can be dropped without changing the intransitive reading of cakap (talk) or tidur (sleeping).
In comparison, baju is necessary to complete the meaning of mencuci (washing) in the first sentence.
In conclusion, a transitive sentence requires an object while an intranstive sentence does not require any.
6. I am confused when do i use Me- Di- or Ber-. Is there a way to remember or understand better?
Me is where Actor and action occurs
Ali membaca buku itu hence active sentence
Di is where the object is fronted
Buku itu dibaca oleh Ali hence passive reading
Ber- is intransitive reading where no object is needed
Mereka berjalan ke sekolah or Mereka berjalan ke kedai hence intransitive reading.
6a. still do not understand the Di and Ber part. is there a much easier way to understand?
Di is passive hence the Object becomes the first reference
6.1. Ikan dimakan oleh adik lelaki (the fish was eaten by younger brother)
Ber- is intransitive still active with Actor-action pattern
6.2 Saya bercakap di telefon (I [actor] talk [action] on the phone)
The easier way to see these is think in Mandarin
6.1.1 Yu [object] pei didi ce le [passive]
6.2.1 Wo [actor] jian [action] dian hua [active intransitive; sorry for bad hanyu pinyin]
If you understand thus far, the next q would be what’s the diff. between meN and ber?
They differ in that
meN-verbs mainly require object: Ali membeli baju di Vivocity
ber-verb does not usually take object: Mereka berlari di padang
Hence meN-, ber- are actor-action events one with object; the other without.
Whereas, di- is an object-actor passive event.